# Moderation and Mediation Analysis

Baron and Kenny (1986) say moderation and mediation analysis are two different ideas. It is a little unfortunate that they not only have such similar names but also tend to accompany the same citation. In this article, we are going to focus on the differences between these two analyses. First, you should know that moderation and mediation analyses have to do with understanding the relationship between an independent and dependent variable. They both have to do with checking on how a third variable fits into this relationship. Also, this is where the similarity between mediation and moderation analyses ends.

Moderation Analysis

Moderation analysis offers a way of checking if a third variable influences the direction or strength of the relationship between independent and dependent variables. To grasp and remember this concept, you should understand that the moderator variable might change the strength of the relationship from strong, to moderate, and nothing at all. The moderation analysis is almost like a turn dial on the relationship. In other words, as you change the values of the moderator, a statistical relationship observed before might dissolve away.

For example, as a student, you might expect that the length of studying time is directly related to the grade you will score in your calculus test. This can be probably right. Suppose we say there is a strong relationship between time spent while studying and grades. This relationship may not hold across the board. Let us take grade level to be a possible moderator. The relationship will not hold if we change the moderator from college student to elementary school student. Regardless of the amount of time an elementary student invests in studying, he cannot secure an A grade in calculus. However, for a college student, studying can play a key role in deciding if he secures a decent grade or not.

How to test moderation

You can simply include an interaction term between the moderator and the independent variable in your model to test moderation. The measurement level of the variables in the model, the design, and any data issues will guide the type of model you will use. Fortunately, including interaction terms is quite easy. However, you can opt for our mediation and moderator analysis homework help

Mediation Analysis

Mediation analysis is straightforward in its naming convention. It mediates the relationship between independent and dependent variables. Mediation analysis explains the reason why such a relationship exists. We can also think about a mediator variable is that it carries an effect. An independent variable leads to some kind of change to the mediator variable in a perfect mediation. This then leads to a change in the dependent variable. However, the relationship s between the mediator and the independent variable is never tested for causality in practice. We only test for a correlational relationship.

Mediation analysis strives to see if the influence of the mediator is stronger than the direct influence of the independent variable. A perfect example of a real-world example of a mediator variable is the temperature of a stove. When you put water on a stove, it will not start to boil until the stove is turned on. However, it is not turning the knob that boils the water. Instead, it is the heat that results from turning the knob. We can check to see how tightly correlated the knob being turned is to the state of the water. For the first few minutes when the stove is turned on, there would be no effect on the water. Let us treat this as a weak correlation. We can see that it is the temperature of the stove (the mediator) that is causing the water to boil and not merely turning the knob.

How to test for mediation

Mediation statistical evaluation can be achieved through the path evaluation or structural equation modeling processes. Also, we can employ multiple linear regressions (MLR). Path analysis or structural equation modeling is an appropriate methodology because it allows the simultaneous evaluation of all equations. Also, it tests the indirect effect of the independent variable on the direct variable through the mediator.

Mediating events are viewed either as effects or causes. This depends on the stage of the mediation analysis. On the other hand, moderator variables often function as independent variables. Hire our online experts today and attain excellence in your mediation and moderation assignment.