Factorial Analysis of Variance

Factorial Analysis of Variance

Factorial Analysis of Variance in SPSS


The practice of quantitative research not only involves statistical calculations and formulas but also involves the understanding of statistical techniques related to real-world applications. You might not become a quantitative researcher nor use statistical methods in your profession but as a consumer, citizen, and scholar-practitioner, it will be important for you to become a critical consumer of research, which will empower you to read, interpret, and evaluate the strength of claims made in scholarly material and daily news.
For this Assignment, you will critically evaluate article attached related to factorial ANOVA.  Also use the template format in doing critique

Write a 2- to 3-page critique of the research you found in the Walden Library that includes responses to the following prompts:
•       Why did the authors select factorial ANOVA in the research?
•       Do you think this test was the most appropriate choice? Why or why not?
•       Did the authors display the results in a figure or table?
•       Does the results table stand alone? In other words, are you able to interpret the study from it? Why or why not?


Write one paragraph summary of the article including why the research was done, what they found, and implications for social change (no more than 1 page).

Critique of Article/Research Study

In paragraph form, write a 2-3 page critique of the article you were assigned to read for the assignment.

A critique is not a summary (retelling) of the article and what the authors did.  A critique is a combination of a short summary of what you are critiquing and then a critique of it (Was what they did appropriate?  Why or why not?  What would you have potentially done differently?  Why? Did they follow best research practices?  How do you know?).

Critique of Literature Review

  • Was the problem clearly articulated and was ample evidence provided to support the problem being addressed?
  • Was the theoretical or conceptual framework present, was its relationship to the present study described, and was it appropriate to the problem being addressed?
  • Was the literature cited appropriate to the topic?
  • Was the literature primarily from current sources (within 5 years of the article publication date)?
  • Did the author choose citations judiciously, or were did it appear that quantity of citations was emphasized over quality?
  • Does the literature review present a clear and non-biased approach to the topic?
  • Were the research questions and / or hypotheses clearly stated? Do they logically derive from the literature review?

Critique of Methods/Research Design

  • Were the participants adequately described in terms of population, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and sampling strategy?
  • Is the sample representative of the population?
  • Is there support that the sample size ensures adequate statistical power?
  • Was there a statement indicating that IRB approval was obtained?
  • Were procedures for protecting participant rights included?
  • Were the procedures for executing the design carefully described in a way that you or other scientists could replicate the study?
  • Is the role and activity of the researcher in the data collection setting/sites described?
  • Were reliability and validity measures of questionnaires, scales, or other measurement instruments presented? Do measures exhibit adequate reliability and validity?
  • Were instruments used in populations for which they may not have been normed? Was there effort made to ensure reliability and validity in the study sample?
  • Was the design appropriate to test the hypothesis(es) or address the research questions?
  • Was random assignment used? If not, what are the potential flaws to internal and external validity?

Critique of Results Section

  • Are the important characteristics of the sample described?
  • Are participation rates (and attrition rates in longitudinal studies) described? For longitudinal studies, was differential attrition determined?
  • Were key descriptive statistics provided for all variables?
  • Do the results address the hypotheses under question?
  • Are tables and figures used effectively? Were tables not used when they would have been very helpful to the reader?
  • Are effect sizes and p-values reported for all inferential findings? Were they appropriate?

Critique of Discussion Section

  • Are the results discussed in the context of the research presented in the literature review section?
  • Are methodological limitations adequately addressed? Think in terms of sample representativeness, generalizability of results, and potential threats to internal and external validity.
  • Are implications for further research described?
  • Are implications for practitioners described?
  • Is the contribution/significance to the field in relation to the continuum of inquiry clear?

You do not need to cite the article you are critiquing but you do need to cite any materials that you use in critiquing the article from other sources.  If you do cite other resources you will need to add an APA formatted reference list on the last page of the paper.

Make sure that you are not giving non-human things human characteristics in your paper.  This means things like “this study concluded”.  A study cannot conclude something but you can say things like “these authors concluded”.  In addition, when you talk about research that has been done in the past or published materials you need to talk about them in the past tense.


In your conclusion write a paragraph about what your overall thoughts about the article were and if you found the article to be useful as well as why or why not. Also include if you think this article would be helpful to another researcher and why/why not.


Include any references you used in your paper other than the article you critiqued in APA format. 



The research was conducted to establish the importance of the developing the e physical literature among children in informing the quality of the physical education that most of the learning institutions impacts on them. However, the major reason why the research was conducted was to examine the level of the physical activity and fitness contest knowledge of that risk is the inner city children. This was also to determine using the different activities if the students accumulate more physical activities on the effect of the BMI or the individual effects on the level of knowledge. This was specifically meant to develop an understanding of the future interventions regarding the child behavior and experience in the area of study and globally.

 Critique of the articles

Factorial ANOVA is a statistical technique which assesses the potential differences in a scale level through the use of the dependent variables by the standard level variables which have two or even more categories. The author the article used the factorial ANOVA to analyses the statistical data since the data which he was analyzing had more than two variances categories. The researcher in this study used the two-way and the three-way ANOVA to examine the potential difference that concerned the general and grades, and the health relates fitness performance. This was only possible from the use of the factorial ANOVA.

The test that the researchersutilized in the study wereconsideredefficient and the most appropriate. This is because the two by 2 and the three by three by three factorial test made it possible to compare all the treatments that research was targeting. Also, all the Metrics which involved the tertiles of the student BMI, PACER and the pedometer step in the development of the knowledge score making the use of the factorial ANOVA the most appropriate. It makes it possible to compare all the treatments of the test to come up with the most adequate and reliable information.

The authors use atable to display their figures. The table which outlines the different categories of the variables that are used to comes up with the results of theanalysis. The able also develops aclear understanding based on the variables that are based on the knowledge scales by gender, grade, physical activity, aerobic fitness and the BMI. The authors of the article develop a layer yet not a certain table on the research. This together with the discussion that the authors of the article use, they develop a broader understanding of the issues under discussion.

The table that the author produces and uses to display the figures from the researcher finds des do not stand alone. It is considered impossible to draw a clear understanding of the concepts that are discussed in the article by looking at the table alone. Despite, that that the table is considerably easy to interpret, understanding from the table alone is not sufficient to develop an individual understanding.


This article is properly formed. The research articulate the best use of the Factorial ANOVA in the development of the data analysis. Also, the article establishes a clear relies on the other researcherswho have been conducted concerning the topic and used the same in development of the proper, precise and present understanding. The issue under investigation in the article is considerably well tackled, and the conclusion that the authors of the itemscome to are tied to the different findings with research information supporting them. Also, the factorial ANOVA test which has been used in the analysis of the variousvariables used in reaching the conclusions is also well articulated in the article.   The use of the table has also been used to meet proper the aim which it is intended for. The authors of the article have accompanied the table with proper discussion from the finding in coming up with the conclusion.  Find the article, in my opinion, is considerednecessary in my view. It is easy to read and appropriately developed in informing the effects of the physical activity and him fitness knowledge of at-riskinner-city children.


Brusseau, T. A., Burns, R. D., & Hannon, J. C. (2016).Effect of Body Composition, Physical Activity, and Aerobic Fitness on the Physical Activity and Fitness Knowledge of At-Risk Inner-City Children.Physical Educator, 73(4), 745.